Thursday, September 11, 2014

iPhone 6 Plus and The End of Pixels

It's been a long time coming. NeXTStep in 1989 featured DisplayPostscript, and therefore a device independent imaging model that meant you did not specify graphics in pixels, but rather in physical units. The default was a variant of the printer's point at 1/72nd of an inch, which happened to be close the the typical pixel resolution of displays at the time. However, 1 point never meant 1 pixel, it meant 1/72nd of an inch, and the combination of floating point coordinates and transformation matrices meant you could use pretty much any unit you wanted. When NeXT bought Apple, it brought this imaging model with it, although with some modifications due to Adobe intransigence about licensing and the addition of anti-aliasing.

However, despite the device-independent APIs, we still have pixel-based content, and "pixel-accurate" graphics. This has made less and less sense over time, with retina displays making pixel-accuracy moot (no more screen fonts!) scaled modes making it impossible and both iOS 7 and OS X 10.10 going for a more geometric look. Still, the design community has resisted, talking about @3 pixel art etc.

No more.

The iPhone 6 Plus has a 1920x1080 panel, but the simulator renders at 3x. These two resolutions don't match and so the pixels will need to be downsampled to the display resolution. Whether that is accomplished by downsampling pixel art (which happens automagically with Quartz and the proper device transform set) or as a separate step that downsamples the entire rendered framebuffer doesn't matter (much). Either way, there are no more "pixel perfect" pre-rendered designs.

Device-independent graphics, here we come at last. We're only a quarter century late.

Update: "Its 401 PPI display is the first display I’ve ever used on which, no matter how close I hold it to my eyes, I can’t perceive the pixels. " - John Gruber (emphasis mine)

Wednesday, September 10, 2014

collect is what for does

I recently stumbled on Rob Napier's explanation of the map function in Swift. So I am reading along yadda yadda when suddenly I wake up and my eyes do a double take:
After years of begging for a map function in Cocoa [...]
Huh? I rub my eyes, probably just a slip up, but no, he continues:
In a generic language like Swift, “pattern” means there’s a probably a function hiding in there, so let’s pull out the part that doesn’t change and call it map:
Not sure what he means with a "generic language", but here's how we would implement a map function in Objective-C.
#import <Foundation/Foundation.h>

typedef id (*mappingfun)( id arg );

static id makeurl( NSString *domain ) {
  return [[[NSURL alloc] initWithScheme:@"http" host:domain path:@"/"] autorelease];

NSArray *map( NSArray *array, mappingfun theFun )
  NSMutableArray *result=[NSMutableArray array];
  for ( id object in array ) {
    id objresult=theFun( object );
    if ( objresult ) {
       [result addObject:objresult];
  return result;

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
  NSArray *source=@[ @"", @"", @"" ];
  NSLog(@"%@",map(source, makeurl ));

This is less than 7 non-empty lines of code for the mapping function, and took me less than 10 minutes to write in its entirety, including a trip to the kitchen for an extra cookie, recompiling 3 times and looking at the qsort(3) manpage because I just can't remember C function pointer declaration syntax (though it took me less time than usual, maybe I am learning?). So really, years of "begging" for something any mildly competent coder could whip up between bathroom breaks or during a lull in their twitter feed?

Or maybe we want a version with blocks instead? Another 2 minutes, because I am a klutz:

#import <Foundation/Foundation.h>

typedef id (^mappingblock)( id arg );

NSArray *map( NSArray *array, mappingblock theBlock )
  NSMutableArray *result=[NSMutableArray array];
  for ( id object in array ) {
    id objresult=theBlock( object );
    if ( objresult ) {
       [result addObject:objresult];
  return result;

int main(int argc, char *argv[]) {
  NSArray *source=@[ @"", @"", @"" ];
  NSLog(@"%@",map(source, ^id ( id domain ) {
    return [[[NSURL alloc] initWithScheme:@"http" host:domain path:@"/"] autorelease];

Of course, we've also had collect for a good decade or so, which turns the client code into the following, much more readable version (Objective-Smalltalk syntax):
NSURL collect URLWithScheme:'http' host:#('' '') each path:'/'.

As I wrote in my previous post, we seem to be regressing to a mindset about computer languages that harkens back to the days of BASIC, where everything was baked into the language, and things not baked into the language or provided by the language vendor do not exist.

Rob goes on the write "The mapping could be performed in parallel [..]", for example like parcollect? And then "This is the heart of good functional programming." No. This is the heart of good programming.

Having processed that shock, I fly over a discussion of filter (select) and stumble over the next whopper:

It’s all about the types

Again...huh?? Our map implementation certainly didn't need (static) types for the list, and all the Smalltalkers and LISPers that have been gleefully using higher order techniques for 40-50 years without static types must also not have gotten the memo.

We [..] started to think about the power of functions to separate intent from implementation. [..] Soon we’ll explore some more of these transforming functions and see what they can do for us. Until then, stop mutating. Evolve.
All modern programming separates intent from implementation. Functions are a fairly limited and primitive way of doing so. Limiting power in this fashion can be useful, but please don't confuse the power of higher order programming with the limitations of functional programming, they are quite distinct.

Tuesday, September 9, 2014

No Virginia, Swift is not 10x faster than Objective-C

About a month ago, Jesse Squires published a post titled Apples to Apples, documenting benchmark results that he claims show Swift now with a roughly 10x performance advantage over Objective-C. Although completely bogus, the post was retweeted by Chris Lattner (who should know better, and was supposedly mostly interested in highlighting the improvements in the Swift optimizer, rather than the bogus comparison) and has now been referenced a number of times as background knowledge as to the state of Swift. More importantly, though the actual mistake Jesse makes is pretty basic and not that interesting, it does point to some deeper misunderstandings about performance and language that I at least do find interesting.

So what's the mistake? Ironically, given the post's title, is that he is comparing apples to oranges, so to speak. The following table, which shows the time to sort an array of 10000 numbers 10 times in millisecond, illustrates the problem:

NSNumbernative integer
Jesse compared the two versions highlighted, so native Swift integers with Objective-C NSNumber object wrappers. All times are for binaries with optimization enabled, the machine was a 13" MBR with 2.9 GHz Intel Core i7 and 8GB of RAM. The integer sort was done using a C integer array and the system qsort() function. When you compare apples to apples, Objective-C has a roughly 2x edge with NSNumbers and is around 18% slower for native integers, at least when using qsort()

Why the 18% disadvantage? The qsort() function is made generically applicable to different types of arrays using a function pointer parameter for the comparison function that itself is parametrized using pointers to the elements to be compared. This means there is a per-comparison overhead of one function call and two pointer dereferences per comparison. That overhead overwhelms the actual comparison operation, which is a single machine instruction on most processors.

Swift, on the other hand, appears to produce a version of the sort function that is specialized to the integer type, with the comparison function inlined to the generated function so there is no function call or pointer dereference overhead. That is very clever and a Good Thing™ for performance. Sort of. The drawback is that this breaks separate compilation, because the functions actually have to be combined during the compile/link process every time it is used (I assume there is caching going on so we only got one per type combination).

Apart from making the compiler/linker slower , possibly significantly so (like C++ headers, though I presume they use LLVM bitcode to optimize the process), it also likely bloats the executable, causing cache and memory pressure. So it's a tradeoff, as usual, and while I think having the ability to specialize at compile-time is good, not being able to control it is not.

Objective-C doesn't have this ability to automagically adapt a function or method to parameters, if you want inlining the relationship has to be known at definition not at point of use. However, if the benefit of inlining is only 21% for the most primitive type, a machine integer, then it is clear that that the set of types for which compile-time specialization is beneficial at all is small.

Cocoa of course already provides specialized collection classes for the byte and unichar types, NSData and NSString respectively. I never quite understood why this wasn't extended to the other primitive types, particularly integer and float/double. On the other hand, the omission never bothered me much, I just implemented those classes myself in MPWFoundation. MPWRealArray even has support for DisplayPostscript binary object sequences, it's that old!

Both MPWRealArray and the corresponding MPWIntArray classes are small and fairly trivial to implement, and once I have them, using a specialized integer or real array is at least as convenient as using an NSArray, just a lot faster. They could also be quite a bit smaller than they are, sharing code either via subclassing or poor-man's generic programming via include files. Once I have a nice OO interface, I can swap out the implementation for something really quick like a dual-pivot integer sort I found in Java-land and adapted to C. (It is surprising just how similar they are at that level). With that sort, the test time drops to 0.56 ms, so 42% faster than the Swift version and almost twice as fast as the system qsort() function.

So the takeaway is that if you are using NSNumber objects in performance-sensitive code: stop. This is always a mistake. The native number types for Objective-C are int, float, double and friends, not NSNumber. After all, how do you perform arithmetic? Either directly on a primitive or by unboxing the NSNumber and then performing arithmetic on the primitive and then reboxing. Use primitive scalar types as much as possible where they make sense.

A second takeaway is that the question "which language is faster" doesn't really make sense, a more relevant and interesting question is "does this language make it hard/possible/easy to write fast code". Objective-C lets you write really fast code, if you want to, because it has the low-level chops and an understandable performance model. Swift so far can achieve reasonable performance at times, ludicrously bad at other times (especially with the optimizer turned off, which hardly fazes Objective-C), with as far as I can tell fairly little predictability or control. Having 10% faster (or slower) performance for code I don't particularly care about is not worth nearly as much as the knowledge that I can get the 1-5% of code that I do care about in shape no matter what. Swift is definitely not there yet, and given the direction it is taking I am not sure whether it will allow that kind of control, at least in comprehensible ways.

A third point is something more general about language. The whole argument that NSNumber and NSArray are "built in" somehow and int is not displays a lack of understanding of Objective-C that to me seems staggering. Even more so, the whole idea that you must only use what comes provided with Cocoa and are not allowed to build your own flies in the face of modern language design, throwing us back to the times of BASIC (Arthur Luehrmann, in the comments):

I had added graphics primitives to Dartmouth Basic around 1976 and developed an X-Y pen-plotter to carry out graphics commands mixed in with the text being sent to Teletype terminals.
The idea is that is that a language is a bundle of features, or to put it linguistically, a language is a list of words to be used as is.

Both C and Pascal introduced me to a new notion: that languages are not lists of words, but means of constructing your own words. For example, C did/does not have I/O as a language feature. I/O was just another set of functions placed in a library that you included just like any of your own functions/libraries. And there were two sets of them, the stdio package and the raw Unix I/O.

At around the same time I was introduced to both top-down and bottom-up programming. Both assume there is a recursive de-composition of the problem at hand (assuming the problem sufficiently complex to warrant it).

In bottom-up programming, you build up the vocabulary (the procedures and functions) that are necessary to succinctly describe your top-level problem, and then you describe your program in terms of that vocabulary you created. In top-down programming, you start at the other end and write your top-level program in terms of the vocabulary you wish you had to optimally describe the problem. Then you fill in the blanks.

In both, you define your own language to fit the problem, then you solve the problem using the language you defined. You would not add plotting commands to the language, you would either add plotting commands as a library or, if that were not possible, a way of adding plotting commands as a library. You would not look at whether plotting comes with the "standard library" or not. To quote Guy Steele in Growing a Language:

This is the nub of what I want to say. A language design can no longer be a thing. It must be a pattern—a pattern for growth—a pattern for growing the pattern for defining the patterns that programmers can use for their real work and their main goal.
So build your own libraries, your own abstractions. It's easy, fun and useful. It's the heart of Domain Driven Design, probably the most productive and effective software construction technique we as an industry have come up with to date. See what abstractions you can build easily and which ones are hard. Analyze the latter and you have started on the road to modern language design.

CORRECTION (June 4th 2015): I misattributed the Dartmouth BASIC quote to Cathy Doser, when the comment line on the Macintosh folklore entry clearly said Arthur Luehrmann. (Cathy's comment was a bit earlier).

Saturday, August 30, 2014

So how are those special Swift initializers working out?

If you're building a UIView subclass that needs to set up a mess of subviews this can get old really quick. Best option I've found so far? Just initialize them with a default value like you would a regular variable. Now the compiler's off your back and and you can move on with your life, or at least what's left of it after choosing software development as a career.
Justin Driscoll

This is something people who create elaborate mechanisms to force people to "Do the Right Thing" never seem to understand: they hardly ever achieve what they are trying to achieve. Instead, people will do the minimal amount of work to get the compiler off their backs. Compare Java's checked exceptions.

Friday, July 11, 2014


I just took my car to its biennial TüV inspection and apart from the tires that had simply worn out everything was A-OK, nothing wrong at all. Kind of surprising for a 7 year old mechanical device that has been used: daily commute from Mountain View to Oakland, tight cornering in the foothills, shipped across the Atlantic twice and now that it is back in its native country, occasional and sometimes prolonged sprints at 200 km/h. All that with not all that much maintenance, because the owner is not exactly a car nut.

Cars used to not be nearly this reliable, and getting there wasn't easy, it took the industry both plenty of time and a lot of effort. It's not that the engineers didn't know how to build reliable cars, but making them reliable and keeping them affordable and still allowing car companies to turn a profit, that was hard.

One particular component is the alternator belt, which had to be changed so frequently that engine compartments were specially designed to make the belt easily accessible. That's no longer the case, and the characteristic screeching sound of a worn belt is one that I haven't heard in a long time.

My late dad, who was in the business, told me how it went down, at least at Volkswagen. As other problems had been whittled away over the decades, alternator belts were becoming a real issue on the reliability reports compiled by motoring magazines, and the engineers were tasked with the job of fixing the problem. And fix it they did: they came up with a design that would "never" break or wear out, and no I don't know the details of how that was supposed to work.

Problem was: it was a tad expensive. Much more expensive than the existing solution and simply too expensive for the price bracket they were aiming for (this may seem odd to outsiders considering the total cost of a car, but pennies matter). Which of course was one reason why they had put up with unreliable belts for so long. Then word came in that the Japanese had solved the problem as well, and were offering it on their cheap(er) models. Next auto-show, they went to the both of one of those Japanese companies and popped the hood.

The engineers scoffed: the design the Japanese was cheaper because it was much, much more primitive than the one they had come up with, and it would, in fact, also wear out much more quickly. But exactly how much more quickly would it wear out? In other words, what was the expected lifetime of this cheaper, inferior alternator belt design?

About the expected lifetime of the car.

Ahh. As far as I can tell, the Japanese design or variants thereof conquered the world. I can't recall the last time I heard the screech of a worn out belt, engine compartments these days are not designed with accessibility in mind and cars are still affordable, although changing the belt if it does break will cost more in labor because of the less accessible placement.

What do alternator belts have to do with software development? Probably nothing, but to me at least, the situation reminds me of the one I write about in The Safyness of Static Typing. I am actually with those commenters who scoffed at the idea that the safety benefit of static typing is only around 2%, because theoretically having a tight specification of possible values checked at compile-time absolutely should bring a greater benefit.

For example, when static typing and protocols were introduced to Objective-C, I absolutely expected them to catch my errors, so I was quite surprised when it turned out that in practice they didn't: because I could actually compile/run/test my code without having to specify static types, by the time I added static types the code simply no longer had type errors, because the vast majority of those were caught by running it. The dynamic safety also helped, because instead of a random crash, I got a nice clean error message "object abc doesn't understand message xyz".

My suspicion is that although dynamic typing and the practices that go with it may only be, let's say, 50% as good at catching type errors as a good static type system, they are actually 98% effective at catching real world type errors. So if static type systems are twice as good, they would be 196% effective at catching real world type errors, which just like the perfect, german-engineered alternator belts, is simply more than is actually needed (96% more with my hypothetical numbers).

There are obviously other factors at play, but I think this may account for a good part of the perceived discrepancy.

What do you think? Comments welcome here or on Hacker News.

Saturday, June 28, 2014

Compiler Writers Gone Wild: ARC Madness

In this week's episode of CWGW: This can't possibly crash, yet crash it does.

In a project I am currently working on, the top crash for the last week or so has been the following NSOutlineView delegate method:

- (BOOL)outlineView:(NSOutlineView *)outlineView isGroupItem:(id)item
    return NO;
The team had been ignoring it, because it just didn't make any sense and they had other things to do. (Fortunately not too many other crashes, the app is pretty solid at this point). When they turned to me, I was also initially puzzled, because all this should do on x86 is stuff a zero into %eax and return. This cannot possibly crash[1], so everyone just assumed that the stack traces were off, as they frequently are.

Fortunately I had just looked at the project settings and noticed that we were compiling with -O0, so optimizations disabled, and my suspicion was that ARC was doing some unnecessary retaining. That suspicion turned out to be on the money, otool -Vt revealed that ARC had turned our innocuous return NO; into the following monstrosity:

-[SomeOutlineViewDelegeate outlineView:isGroupItem:]:
00000001001bfdb0        pushq   %rbp
00000001001bfdb1        movq    %rsp, %rbp
00000001001bfdb4        subq    $0x30, %rsp
00000001001bfdb8        leaq    -0x18(%rbp), %rax
00000001001bfdbc        movq    %rdi, -0x8(%rbp)
00000001001bfdc0        movq    %rsi, -0x10(%rbp)
00000001001bfdc4        movq    $0x0, -0x18(%rbp)
00000001001bfdcc        movq    %rax, %rdi
00000001001bfdcf        movq    %rdx, %rsi
00000001001bfdd2        movq    %rcx, -0x30(%rbp)
00000001001bfdd6        callq   0x10027dbaa             ## symbol stub for: _objc_storeStrong
00000001001bfddb        leaq    -0x20(%rbp), %rdi
00000001001bfddf        movq    $0x0, -0x20(%rbp)
00000001001bfde7        movq    -0x30(%rbp), %rsi
00000001001bfdeb        callq   0x10027dbaa             ## symbol stub for: _objc_storeStrong
00000001001bfdf0        leaq    -0x20(%rbp), %rdi
00000001001bfdf4        movabsq $0x0, %rsi
00000001001bfdfe        movl    $0x1, -0x24(%rbp)
00000001001bfe05        callq   0x10027dbaa             ## symbol stub for: _objc_storeStrong
00000001001bfe0a        movabsq $0x0, %rsi
00000001001bfe14        leaq    -0x18(%rbp), %rax
00000001001bfe18        movq    %rax, %rdi
00000001001bfe1b        callq   0x10027dbaa             ## symbol stub for: _objc_storeStrong
00000001001bfe20        movb    $0x0, %r8b
00000001001bfe23        movsbl  %r8b, %eax
00000001001bfe27        addq    $0x30, %rsp
00000001001bfe2b        popq    %rbp
00000001001bfe2c        retq
00000001001bfe2d        nopl    (%rax)
Yikes! Of course, this is how ARC works: it generates an insane amount of retains and releases (hidden inside objc_storeStrong()), then relies on a special optimization pass to remove the insanity and leave behind the necessary retains/releases. Turn on the "standard" optimization -Os and we get the following, much more reasonable result:
-[WLTaskListsDataSource outlineView:isGroupItem:]:
00000001000e958a        pushq   %rbp
00000001000e958b        movq    %rsp, %rbp
00000001000e958e        xorl    %eax, %eax
00000001000e9590        popq    %rbp
00000001000e9591        retq
Much better!

It isn't clear why those retains/releases were crashing, all the objects involved looked OK in the debugger, but at least we will no longer be puzzled by code that can't possibly crash...crashing, and therefore have a better chance of actually debugging it.

Another issue is performance. I just benchmarked the following equivalent program:


@interface Hi:NSObject {}
-(BOOL)doSomething:arg1 with:arg2;

@implementation Hi
-(BOOL)doSomething:arg1 with:arg2
  return NO;

int main( int argc, char *argv[] ) 
  Hi *hi=[Hi new];
  for (int i=0;i < 100000000; i++ ) {
    [hi doSomething:hi with:hi];
  return 0;
On my 13" MBPR, it runs in roughly 0.5 seconds with ARC disabled and in 13 seconds with ARC enabled. That's 26 time slower, meaning we now have a highly non-obvious performance model, where performance is extremely hard to predict and control. The simple and obvious performance model was one of the main reasons Objective-C code tended to actually be quite fast if even minimal effort was expended on performance, despite the fact that some parts of Objective-C aren't all that fast.

I find the approach of handing off all control and responsibility to the optimizer writers worrying. My worries stem partly from the fact that I've never actually had that work in the past. With ARC it also happens that the optimizer can't figure out a retain/release isn't needed, so you need to sprinkle a few __unsafe_unretains throughout your code (not many, but you need to figure out which).

Good optimization has always been something that needed a human touch (with automatic assistance), the message "just trust the compiler" doesn't resonate with me. Especially since, and this is the other part I am worried about, compiler optimizations have been getting crazier and crazier, clang for example thinks there is nothing wrong with producing two different values for de-referencing the same pointer (at the same time, with no stores in-between (source:

int main() {
  int *p = (int*)malloc(sizeof(int));
  int *q = (int*)realloc(p, sizeof(int));
  *p = 1;
  *q = 2;
  if (p == q)
    printf("%d %d\n", *p, *q);
I tested this with clang-600.0.34.4 on my machine and it also gives this non-sensical result: 1 2. There are more examples, which I also wrote about in my post cc -Osmartass. Of course, Swift moves further in this direction, with expensive default semantics and reliance on the compiler to remove the resulting glaring inefficiencies.

In what I've seen reported and tested myself, this approach results in differences between normal builds and -Ofast-optimized builds of more than a factor of 100. That's not close to being OK, and it makes code much harder to understand and optimize. My guess is that we will be looking at assembly a lot more when optimizing Swift than we ever did in Objective-C, and then scratching our heads as to why the optimizer didn't manage to optimize that particular piece of code.

I fondly remember the "Java optimization" WWDC sessions back when we were supposed to rewrite all our code in that particular new hotness. In essence, we were given a model of the capabilities of HotSpot's JIT optimizer, so in order to optimize code we had to know what the resulting generated code would be, what the optimizer could handle (not a lot), and then translate that information back into the original source code. At that point, it's simpler to just write yourself the assembly that you are trying to goad the JIT into emitting for you. Or portable Macro Assembler. Or object-oriented portable Macro Assembler.

Well it could if the stack had previously reached its limit
Discuss here or on HN

Thursday, June 26, 2014

How to Swiftly Destroy a $370 Million Dollar Rocket with Overflow "Protection"

Apple's new Swift programming language has been heavily promoted as being a safer alternative to Objective-C, with a much stronger emphasis on static typing, for example. While I am dubious about the additional safety of static typing, I argue that it produces far more safyness than actual safety, this post is going to look at a different feature: overflow protection.

Overflow protection means that when an arithmetic operation on an integer exceeds the maximum value for that integer type, the value doesn't wrap around as it does on most CPU ALUs, and by extension C. Instead the program signals an exception and since Swift has no exception handling the program crashes.

While this looks a little like the James Bond anti theft device in For Your Eyes Only, which just blows up the car, the justification is that the program should be protected from operating on values that have become bogus. While I understand the reasoning, I am dubious that it really is safer to have every arithmetic operation on integers and every conversion from higher precision to lower in the entire program become a potential crash site, when before those operations could never crash (except for division by zero).

While it would be interesting to see what evidence there is for this argument, I can give at least one very prominent example against it. On June 4th 1996, ESA's brand new Ariane 5 rocket blew up during launch, due to a software fault, with a total loss of US $370 million, apparently one of the most expensive software faults in history. What was that software fault? An overflow protection exception triggered by a floating point to (short) integer conversion.

The resulting core-dump/diagnostics were then interpreted by the next program in line as valid data, causing effectively random steering inputs that caused the rocket to break up (and self destruct when it detected it was breaking up).

What's interesting is that almost any other handling of the overflow apart from raising an exception would have been OK and saved the mission and $370 million. Silently truncating/clamping the value to the maximum permissible range (which some in the static typing community incorrectly claim was the problem) would have worked perfectly and was the actual solution used for other values.

Even wraparound might have worked, at least there would have been only one bogus transition after which values would have been mostly monotonic again. Certainly better than effectively random values.

Ideally, the integer would have just overflowed into a higher precision as in a dynamic language such as Smalltalk, or even Postscript. Even JavaScript's somewhat wonky idea that all numbers are floats, but some just don't know it yet would have been better in this particular case. Considering the limitations of the hardware those languages weren't options, but nowadays the required computational horsepower is there.

In Ada you at least could potentially trap the exception generated by overflow, but in Swift the only protection is to manually trace back the inputs of every arithmetic operation on integers and enforce ranges for all possible combinations of inputs that do not result in that operation overflowing. For any program with external inputs and even slightly complex data paths and arithmetic, I would venture to say that that is next to impossible.

The only viable method for avoiding arithmetic overflow is to not use integer arithmetic with any external input, ever. Hello JavaScript!

You can try the Ada code with GNAT, or online:

with Ada.Text_IO,Ada.Integer_Text_IO;
use Ada.Text_IO,Ada.Integer_Text_IO;
procedure Hello is
  b : FLOAT;
  a : INTEGER;
end Hello;
You can watch your Swift playground crash using the following code:

var a = 2
var b:Int16
for i in 1..100 {
Note that neither the Ada nor Swift compilers have static checks that detect the overflow, even when all the information is statically available, for example in the following Swift code:

var a:UInt8
a = 254
a += 2
What's even worse is that the -Ofast flag will remove the checks, the integer will just wrap around. Optimization flags in general should not change visible program behavior, except for performance. Or maybe this is good, since it looks like we need that flag to get decent performance at all, we also remove the overflow crashers...

Discuss here or on Hacker News.

Wednesday, June 18, 2014

The Safyness of Static Typing

I like static (manifest) typing. This may come as a shock to those who have read other posts of mine, but it is true. I certainly am more comfortable with having a MPWType1FontInterper *interpreter rather than id interpreter. Much more comfortable, in fact, and this feeling extends to Xcode saying "0 warnings" and the clang static analyzer agreeing.


The question though is: are those feelings actually justified? The rhetoric on the subject is certainly strong, and very rigid/absolute. I recently had a Professor of Computer Science state unequivocally that anyone who doesn't use static typing should have their degree revoked. In a room full of Squeakers. And that's not an extreme or isolated case. Just about any discussion on the subject seems to quickly devolve into proponents of static typing claiming absolutely that dynamic typing invariably leads to programs that are steaming piles of bugs and crash left and right in production, whereas statically typed programs have their bugs caught by the compiler and are therefore safe and sound. In fact, Milner has supposedly made the claim that "well typed programs cannot go wrong". Hmmm...

That the compiler is capable of catching (some) bugs using static type checks is undeniably true. However, what is also obviously true is that not all bugs are type errors (for example, most of the 25 top software errors don't look like type errors to me, and neither goto fail; nor Heartbleed look like type errors either, and neither do the top errors in my different projects), so having the type-checker give our programs a clean bill of health does not make them bug free, it eliminates a certain type or class of bugs.

With that, we can take the question from the realm of religious zealotry to the realm of reasoned inquiry: how many bugs does static type checking catch?

Alas, this is not an easy question to answer, because we are looking for something that is not there. However, we can invert the question: what is the incidence of type-errors in dynamically typed programs, ones that do not benefit from the bug-removal that the static type system gives us and should therefore be steaming piles of those type errors?

With the advent of public source repositories, we now have a way of answering that question, and Robert Smallshire did the grunt work to come up with an answer: 2%.

The 2%

He talks about this some more in the talk titled The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Dynamic Typing, which I heartily recommend. However, this isn't the only source, for example there was a study with the following title: An experiment about static and dynamic type systems: doubts about the positive impact of static type systems on development time (pdf), which found the following to be true in experiments: not only were development times significantly shorter on average with dynamically typed languages, so were debug times.

So all those nasty type errors were actually not having any negative impact on debug times, in fact the reverse was true. Which of course makes sense if the incidence of type errors is even near 2%, because then other factors are almost certain to dominate. Completely.

There are more studies, for example on generics: Do developers benefit from generic types?: an empirical comparison of generic and raw types in java. The authors found a documentation benefit, no error-fixing benefits and a negative impact on extensibility.

Others have said it more eloquently than I can:

Some people are completely religious about type systems and as a mathematician I love the idea of type systems, but nobody has ever come up with one that has enough scope. If you combine Simula and Lisp—Lisp didn’t have data structures, it had instances of objects—you would have a dynamic type system that would give you the range of expression you need.
Even stringent advocates of strong typing such as Uncle Bob Martin, with whom I sparred many a time on that and other subjects in comp.lang.object have now come around to this point of view: yeah, it's nice, maybe, but just not that important, and in fact he has actually reversed his position, as seen in this video of him debating static typing with Chad Fowler.

Truthiness and Safyness

What I find interesting is not so much whether one or the other is right/wronger/better/whatever, but rather the disparity between the vehemence of the rhetoric, at least on one side of the debate ("revoke degrees!", "can't go wrong!") and both the complete lack of empirical evidence for (there is some against) and the lack of magnitude of the effect.

Stephen Colbert coined the term "truthiness" for "a "truth" that a person making an argument or assertion claims to know intuitively 'from the gut' or because it 'feels right' without regard to evidence, logic, intellectual examination, or facts." [Wikipedia]

To me it looks like a similar effect is at play here: as I notice myself, it just feels so much safer if the computer tells you that there are no type errors. Especially if it is quite a bit of effort to get to that state, which it is. As I wrote, I notice that effect myself, despite the fact that I actually know the evidence is not there, and have been a long-time friendly skeptic.

So it looks like static typing is "safy": people just know intuitively that it must be safe, without regard to evidence. And that makes the debate both so heated and so impossible to decide rationally, just like the political debate on "truth" subjects.

Discuss on Hacker News.

Friday, June 6, 2014

Remove features for greater power, aka: Swift and Objective-C initializers

One of the things I find curious is how Apple's new Swift language rehashes mistakes that were made in other languages. Let's take construction or initializers.


These are the rules for initializers in Smalltalk and Objective-C:
  1. An "initializer" is a normal method and a normal message send.
  2. There is no second rule.
There's really nothing more to it, the rest follows organically and naturally from this simple fact and various things you like to see happen. For example, is there a rule that you have to send the initial initializer (alloc or new) to the class? No there isn't, it's just a convenient and obvious place to put it since we don't have the instance yet and the class exists and is an obvious place to go to for instances of that class. However, we could just as well ask a different class to create the object for us.

The same goes with calling super. Yes, that's usually a good idea, because usually you want the superclass's behavior, but if you don't want the superclass's behavior, then don't call. Again, this is not a special rule for initializers, it usually follows from what you want to achieve. And sometimes it doesn't, just like with any other method you override: sometimes you call super, sometimes you do not.

The same goes for assigning the return value, doing the self=[super init]; dance. Again, this is not at all required by the language or the frameworks, although apparently it is a common misconception that it is, a misconception that is, IMHO, promoted by careless creation of "best practices" as "immutable rules", something I wrote about earlier when talking about the useless typing out of the id type in method declarations.

However, returning self and using the returned value is a useful convention, because it makes it possible for init methods to return a different object than what they started with (for example a specific subclass or a singleton).

Swift initializers

Apple's new Swift language has taken a page from the C++ and Java playbooks and made initialization a special case. Well, lots of special cases actually. The Swift book has 30 pages on initialization, and they aren't just illustration and explanation, they are dense with rules and special cases. For example:
  1. You can set a default value of a property in the variable definition.
  2. Or you can set the default value in an initializer.
  3. Designated initializers are now a first class language construct.
  4. Parameterized initializers have local and external parameter names, line methods.
  5. Except that the first parameter name is different and so Swift automatically provides and external parameter name for all arguments, which it doesn't with methods.
  6. Constant properties aren't constant in initializers.
  7. Swift creates a default initializer for both classes and structs.
  8. Swift also creates a default member wise initializer, but only for structs.
  9. Initializers can (only) call other initializers, but there are special rules for what is and is not allowed and these rules are different for structs and classes.
  10. Providing specialized initializers removes the automatically-provided default initializers.
  11. Initializers are different from other methods in that they are not inherited, usually.
  12. Except that there are specific circumstances where they are inherited.
  13. Confused yet? There's more!
  14. If your subclass provides no initializers itself, it inherits all the superclass's initializers
  15. If your subclass overrides all the superclass's designated initializers, it inherits all the convenience initializers (that's also a language construct). How does this not break if the superclass adds initializers? I think we've just re-invented the fragile-base-class problem.
  16. Oh, and you can initialize instance variables with the values returned by closures or functions.
Well, that was easy, but that's probably only because I missed a few. Having all these rules means that this new way of initialization is less powerful than the one before it, because all of these rules restrict the power that a general method has.

Particularly, it is not possible to substitute a different value or return nil to indicate failure to initialize, nor is it possible to call other methods (as far as I can tell).

To actually provide these useful features, we need something else:

  1. Use the Factory method pattern to actually do the powerful stuff you need to do ...
  2. ...which gets you back to where we were at the beginning with Objective-C or Smalltalk, namely sending a normal message.
Of course, we are familiar with this because both C++ and Java also have special constructor language features, plagued by the same problems. They are also the source of the Factory method pattern, at least as a separate "pattern". Smalltalk and Objective-C simply made that pattern the default for object creation, in fact Brad Cox called classes "Factory Objects", long long before the GOF patterns book.

So with all due respect to Michael A. Jackson:

First rule of baking programming conventions into the language: Don't do it!
The second rule of baking programming conventions into the language (experts only): Don't do it yet!

p.s.: I have filed a radar, please dup
p.p.s.: HN

Wednesday, May 28, 2014

Why I don't mock

Well, it's impolite, isn't it? But seriously, when I first heard about mock object testing, I was excited, because it certainly sounded like The Right Thing™: message-based, checking relationships instead of state, and the new hip thing.

However, when I looked at actual examples, they looked sophisticated and obscure, the opposite of what I feel unit tests should be: obvious and simple, simplistic to the point of stupidity. I couldn't figure out at a glance what the expected behavior was, what was being tested and what was environment.

So I never used mocks in practice, meaning my opinions could not go beyond being superficial. Fortunately, I was given the task of porting a fairly large Objective-C project to OS X (yes, you read that right: "to OS X" ), and it was heavily mock-tested.

As far as I could tell, most of the vague premonitions I had about mock testing were borne out in that project: obscure mock tests, mock tests that didn't actually test anything except their own expectations and mock tests that were deeply coupled to implementation details.

Again, though, that could just be my misunderstandings, certainly people for whom I have a great deal of respect advocate for mock tests, but I was heartened when I heard in the recent DHH/Fowler/Beck TDD death-matches friendly conversations that neither Kent nor Martin are great fans of mocking, and certainly not of deeply nested mocks.

However, it was DHH's comments that finally made me realize that what really bothered was something more subtle, and much more pervasive. The talk is about "mocking the database", or mocking some other component. While not proof positive, this kind of mocking seems indicative of not letting the tests drive the design towards simplicity, because the design is already set in stone.

As a result, you're going to have constant pain, because the tests will continuously try to drive you towards simplifying your design, which you resist by putting in mocks.

Instead of putting in mocks of presumed components, let the tests tell you what counterparts they want. Then build those counterparts, again in simplest way possible. You will likely discover that a lot of your assumptions about the required environment for your application turn out not to be true.

For example, when building SportStats v2 at the BBC we thought we needed a database for persistence. But we didn't build it in until we needed it, and we didn't mock it out either. We waited until the code told us that we now needed a database.

It never did.

So we discovered that our problem was simpler than we had originally thought, and therefore our architecture could be as well. Mocking eliminates that feedback.

So don't mock. Because it's impolite to not listen to what your code is trying to tell you.

Tuesday, May 27, 2014

Live objects vs. static types for code completion in Objective-Smalltalk

Objective-Smalltalk is now getting into a very nice virtuous cycle of being more useful, therefore being used more and therefore motivating changes to make it even more useful. One of the recent additions was autocomplete, for both the tty-based and the GUI based REPLs.

I modeled the autocomplete after the one in bash and other Unix shells: it will insert partial completions without asking up the point that they become ambiguous. If there is no unambiguous partial completion, it displays the alternatives. So a usual sequence is <TAB> -> something is inserted <TAB> again -> list is displayed, type one character to disambiguate, <TAB> again and so on. I find that I get to my desired result much quicker and with fewer backtracks than with the mechanism Xcode uses.

Fortunately, I was able to wrestle NSTextView's completion mechanism (in ShellView borrowed from the excellent FSCript) to provide these semantics rather than the built in ones.

Another cool thing about the autocomplete is that it is very precise, unlike for example FScript which as far as I can tell just offers all possible symbols. How can this be, when Objective-Smalltalk is (currently) dynamically typed and we all know that good autocomplete requires static types? The reason is simply that there is one thing that's even better than having the static types available: having the actual objects themselves available!

The two REPLs aren't just syntax-aware, they also evaluate the expression as much as needed and possible to figure out what a good completion might be. So instead of having to figure out the type of the object, we can just ask the object what messages it understands. This was very easy to implement, almost comically trivial compared to a full blown static type-system.

So while static types are good for this purpose, live objects are even better! The Self team made a similar discovery when they were working on their optimizing compiler, trying both static type inference and dynamic type feedback. Type feedback was both simpler and performed vastly better and is currently used even for optimizing statically typed languages such as Java.

Finally, autocomplete also works with Polymorphic Identifiers, for example file:./a<TAB> will autocomplete files in the current directory starting with the letter 'a' (and just fi<TAB> will autocomplete to the file: scheme). Completion is scheme-specific, so any schemes you add can provide their own completion logic.

Like all of Objective-Smalltalk, this is still a work in progress: not all syntactic constructs support completions, for example Polymorphic Identifiers don't support complex paths and there is no bracket matching. However, just like Objective-Smalltalk, what is there is quite useful and often already better what else is out there in small areas.


Saturday, May 3, 2014

Satisfying the hunger for type safety?

Tom Adriaenssen riffs on the id subset in show me some id:
Let me explain: even though you might assume that all those objects are actually going to be DataPoint objects, there’s no actual guarantee that they will actual be DataPoint objects at runtime. Casting them only satisfies your hunger for type safety, but nothing else really.
More importantly, it only seems to satisfy your hunger for type safety, it doesn't actually provide any. It's less nutritious than sugar water in that respect, not even calories, never mind the protein, fiber, vitamins and other goodness. More like a pacifier, really, or the product of a cargo cult.

The sp(id)y subset, or Avoiding Copeland 2010 with Objective-C 1984

In my recent post on Cargo Cult Typing, I mentioned a concept I called the id subset. Briefly, it is the subset of Objective-C that deals only with object pointers, or id's. There has been some misunderstanding that I am opposed to types. I am not, but more on that another time.

One of the many nice properties of the (transitive) id subset is that it is dynamically (memory) safe, just like Smalltalk. That is, as long as all arguments and return values of your message are objects, you can never dereference a pointer incorrectly, the worst that can happen is that you get a "Message not understood" that can be caught and handled by the object in question or raised as an exception. The reason this is safe is that objc_msgSend() will make sure that methods will only ever be invoked on objects of the correct class, no matter what the (possibly incorrect, or unavailable) static type says.

So no de-referencing an incorrect pointer, no scribbling over random bits of memory. In fact, this is the vaunted "pointer safety" that John Siracusa says requires ditching native compiled languages like Objective-C for VM based languages. The idea that a VM with an interpreter or a JIT was required for pointer safety was never true, of course, and it's interesting that both Google and Microsoft are turning to Ahead of Time (AOT) compilation in their newest SDKs, for performance reasons.

Did someone mention "performance"? :-)

Another nice aspect of the id subset is that it makes reflective code a lot simpler. And simplicity usually also translates to speed. How much speed? Apple's NSInvocation class has to deal with interpreting C type information at runtime to then construct proper stack frames dynamically for all possible C types. I think it uses libffi, though it may be some equivalent library. This is slow, around 340.1ns per message send on my 13" MBPR. By restricting itself to the id subset, my own MPWFastInvocation class's dispatch is much simpler, just a switch invoking objc_msgSend() with a different number of arguments.

The simplicity of MPWFastInvocation also pays off in speed: 6.2ns per message-send on the same machine. That's 50 times faster than NSInvocation and only 2-3x slower than a normal message send. In fact, once you're that close, things like IMP-caching (4 ns) start to make sense, especially since they can be hidden behind a nice interface. Using a C Macro and the IMP stashed in a public instance var takes the time down to 3 ns, making the reflective call via an object effectively as fast as the non-reflective code emitted by the compiler. Which is nice, because it makes reflective techniques much more feasible for wider varieties of code, which would be a good thing.

The speed improvement is not because MPWFastInvocation is better than NSInvocation, it is decidedly not, it is because it is solving a much, much simpler problem. By sticking to the safe id subset.

On HN.

Monday, April 14, 2014

cc -Osmartass

I have to admit I am a bit startled to see pople seriously (?) advocate exploitation of "undefined behavior" in the C standard to just eliminate that code altogether, arguing that undefined means literally anything is OK. I've certainly seen it justified many times. Apart from being awful, this idea smacks of hubris on part of the compiler writers.

The job of the compiler is to do the best job it can at turning the programmer's intent into executable machine code, as expressed by the program. It is not to show how clever the optimizer writer is, how good at lawyering the language standard, or to wring out a 0.1% performance improvement on <benchmark-of-choice>, at least not when it conflicts with the primary goal.

For let's not pretend that these optimizations are actually useful or significant: Proebsting's law shows that all compiler optimizations have been at best 1/10th as effective at improving performance as hardware advances, and recent research suggests that even that may be optimistic.

That doesn't mean that I don't like my factor 2 or 3 improvement in code performance for codes where basic optimizations apply. But almost all of those performance gains come at the lowest levels of optimization, the more sophisticated stuff just doesn't bring much if any additional benefit. (There's a reason Apple recommends -Os and not -O3 as default). So don't get ahead of yourselves, other non-compiler optimizations can often achieve 2-3 orders of magnitude improvement, and for a lot of Objective-C code, for example, the compiler's optimizations barely register at all. Again: perspective!

Furthermore, the purpose of "undefined behavior" was (not sure it still is) to be inclusive, so for example compilers for machines with slightly odd architectures could still be called ANSI-C without having to do unnatural things on that architecture in order to conform to over-specification. Sometimes, undefined behavior is needed for programs to work.

So when there is integer overflow, for example, that's not a license to silently perform dead code elimination at certain optimization levels, it's license to do the natural thing on the platform, which on most platforms these days is let the integer overflow, because that is what a C programmer is likely to expect. In addition, feel free to emit a warning. The same goes for optimizing away an out of bounds array access that is intended to terminate a loop. If you are smart enough to figure out the out-of-bounds access, warn about it and then proceed to emit the code. Eliminating the check and turning a terminating loop into an infinite loop is never the right answer.

So please don't do this, you're not producing value: those optimizations will cease to "help" when programmers "fix" their code. You are also not producing value: any additional gains are extremely modest compared to the cost. So please stop doing, certainly stop doing it on purpose, and please carefully evaluate the cost/benefit ratio when introducing optimizations that cause this to happen as a side effect...and then don't. Or do, and label them appropriately.

Friday, April 11, 2014

Sophisticated Simplicity

This quote from Steve Jobs is one that's been an inspiration to me for some time:
[...] when you first attack a problem it seems really simple because you don't understand it. Then when you start to really understand it, you come up with these very complicated solutions because it's really hairy. Most people stop there. But a few people keep burning the midnight oil and finally understand the underlying principles of the problem and come up with an elegantly simple solution for it. But very few people go the distance to get there.
In other words:
  1. Naive Simplicity
  2. Sophisticated Complexity
  3. Sophisticated Simplicity
It's from the February 1984 Byte Interview introducing the Macintosh.

UPDATE: Well, it seems that Heinelein got there first:

Every technology goes through three stages: first, a crudely simple and quite unsatisfactory gadget; second, an enormously complicated group of gadgets designed to overcome the shortcomings of the original and achieving thereby somewhat satisfactory performance through extremely complex compromise; third, a final stage of smooth simplicity and efficient performance [..]
(From the book Rolling Stones, 1952)

Saturday, March 15, 2014

The Siren Call of KVO and (Cocoa) Bindings

The Call of the Cool

I like bindings. I also like Key Value Observing. What they do is undeniably cool: you do some initial setup, and presto: magic! You change a value over here, and another value over there changes as well. Action at a distance. Power.

What they do is also undeniably valuable. I'd venture that nobody actually likes writing state maintenance and update code such as the following: when the user clicks this button, or finishes entering text in that textfield, take the value and put it over here. If the underlying value changes, update the textfield. If I modify this value, notify these clients that the value has changed so they can update themselves accordingly. That's boring. There is no glory in state maintenance code, just potential for failure when you screw up something this simple.

Finally, their implementation is also undeniably cool: observing an attribute of a generic object creates a private subclass for that object (who says we can't do prototype-based programming in Objective-C?), swizzles the object's class pointer to that private subclass and then replaces the attribute's (KVO-compliant) accessor methods with new ones that hook into the KVO system.

Despite these positives, I have actively removed bindings code from projects I have worked on, don't use either KVO or bindings myself and generally recommend staying away from them. Why on earth would I do that?

Excursion: Constraint Solvers

Before I can answer that question, I have to go back a little and talk about constraint solvers.

The idea of setting up relationships once and then having the system maintain them without manually shoveling values back and forth is not exactly new, the first variant I am aware of was Sketchpad, Ivan Sutherland's PhD Thesis from 1961/63 (here with narration by Alan Kay):
I still love Ivan's answer to the question as to how he could invent computer graphics, object orientation and constraint solving in one fell swoop: "I didn't know it was hard".

The first system I am aware of that integrated constraint solving with an object-oriented programming language was ThingLab, implemented on top of Smalltalk by Alan Borning at Xerox PARC around 1978 (where else...):

I really recommend having a look at the ThingLab papers, for example The Programming Language Aspects of ThingLab, a Constraint-Oriented Simulation Laboratory (pdf). Among the features ThingLab adds to Smalltalk are Paths, symbolic references to parts of an object.

While the definition of a paths is simple, the idea behind it has proved quite powerful and has been essential in allowing constraint- and object-oriented metaphors to be integrated. [..] The notion of a path helps strengthen [the distinction between inside and outside of an object] by providing a protected way for an object to provide external reference to its parts and subparts.
Yes, that's a better version of KVC. From 1981. Alan Borning's group at the University of Washington continued working on constraint solvers for many years, with the final result being the Cassowary linear constraint solver (based on the simplex algorithm) that was picked up by Apple for Autolayout. The papers on Cassowary and constraint hierarchies should help with understanding why Autolayout does what it does.

A simpler form of constraints are one-way dataflow constraints.

A one-way, dataflow constraint is an equation of the form y = f(x1,...,xn) in which the formula on the right side is automatically re-evaluated and assigned to the variable y whenever any variable xi. If y is modified from outside the constraint, the equation is left temporarily unsatisfied, hence the attribute “one-way”. Dataflow constraints are recognized as a powerful programming methodology in a variety of contexts because of their versatility and simplicity. The most widespread application of dataflow constraints is perhaps embodied by spreadsheets.
A group at CMU built enough of these systems that after using them for 10-15 years they were able to publish experience reports that are very much worth reading: Lessons Learned About One-Way, Dataflow Constraints in the Garnet and Amulet Graphical Toolkits (pdf) or the slightly more comprehensive Postscript version.

The most important lessons they found were the following:

  1. constraints should be allowed to contain arbitrary code that is written in the underlying toolkit language and does not require any annotations, such as parameter declarations
  2. constraints are difficult to debug and better debugging tools are needed
  3. programmers will readily use one-way constraints to specify the graphical layout of an application, but must be carefully and time-consumingly trained to use them for other purposes.
However, these really are just the headlines, and particularly for Cocoa programmers the actual reports are well worth reading as they contain many useful pieces of information that aren't included in the summaries.

Back to KVO and Cocoa Bindings

So what does this history lesson about constraint programming have to do with KVO and Bindings? You probably already figured it out: bindings are one-way dataflow constraints, specifically with the equation limited to y = x1. more complex equations can be obtained by using NSValueTransformers. KVO is more of an implicit invocation mechanism that is used primarily to build ad-hoc dataflow constraints.

The specific problems of the API and the implementation have been documented elsewhere, for example by Soroush Khanlou and Mike Ash, who not only suggested and implemented improvements back in 2008, but even followed up on them in 2012. All these problems and workarounds demonstrate that KVO and Bindings are very sophisticated, complex and error prone technologies for solving what is a simple and straightforward task: keeping data in sync.

To these implementation problems, I would add performance: even just adding the willChangeValueForKey: and didChangeValueForKey: message sends in your setter (these are usually added automagically for you) without triggering any notifications makes that setter 30 times slower (from 5ns to 150ns on my computer) than a simple setter that just sets and retains the object.

    [newFoo retain];
    [foo release];

    [self willChangeValueForKey:@"foo"];
    [newFoo retain];
    [foo release];
    [self didChangeValueForKey:@"foo"];

One of these is 30 times slower than the other

Actually having that access trigger a notification takes the penalty to a factor of over 100 ( 5ns vs over 540ns), even when there is only a single observer. I am pretty sure it gets worse when there are lots of observers (there used to be an O(n^3) algorithm in there, that was fortunately fixed a while ago). While 500ns may not seem a lot when dealing with UI code, KVO tends to be implemented at the model layer in such a way that a significant number of model data accesses incur at least the base penalties. For example KVO notifications were one of the primary reasons for NSOperationQueue's somewhat anemic performance back when we measured it for the Leopard release.

Not only is the constraint graph not available at run time, there is also no direct representation at coding time. All there is either code or IB settings that construct such a graph indirectly, so the programmer has to infer the graph from what is there and keep it in her head. There are also no formulae, the best we can do are ValueTransformers and keyPathsForValuesAffectingValueForKey.

As best as I can tell, the reason for this state of affairs is that there simply wasn't any awareness of the decades of research and practical experience with constraint solvers at the time (How do I know? I asked, the answer was "Huh?").

Anyway, when you add it all up, my conclusion is that while I would really, really, really like a good constraint solving system (at least for spreadsheet constraints), KVO and Bindings are not it. They are too simplistic, too fragile and solve too little of the actual problem to be worth the trouble. It is easier to just write that damn state maintenance code, and infinitely easier to debug it.

I think one of the main communication problems between advocates for and critics of KVO/Bindings is that the advocates are advocating more for the concept of constraint solving, whereas critics are critical of the implementation. How can these critics not see that despite a few flaws, this approach is obviously The Right Thing™? How can the advocates not see the obvious flaws?

Functional Reactive Programming

As far as I can tell, Functional Reactive Programming (FRP) in general and Reactive Cocoa in particular are another way of scratching the same itch.

[..] is an integration of declarative [..] and imperative object-oriented programming. The primary goal of this integration is to use constraints to express relations among objects explicitly -- relations that were implicit in the code in previous languages.
Sounds like FRP, right? Well, the first "[..]" part is actually "Constraint Imperative Programming" and the second is "constraints", from the abstract of a 1994 paper. Similarly, I've seen it stated that FRP is like a spreadsheet. The connection between functional programming and constraint programming is also well known and documented in the literature, for example the experience report above states the following:
Since constraints are simply functional programming dressed up with syntactic sugar, it should not be surprising that 1) programmers do not think of using constraints for most programming tasks and, 2) programmers require extensive training to overcome their procedural instincts so that they will use constraints.
However, you wouldn't be able to tell that there's a relationship there from reading the FRP literature, which focuses exclusively on the connection to functional programming via functional reactive animations and Microsoft's Rx extensions. Explaining and particularly motivating FRP this way has the fundamental problem that whereas functional programming, which is per definition static/timeless/non-reactive, really needs something to become interactive, reactivity is already inherent in OO. In fact, reactivity is the quintessence of objects: all computation is modeled as objects reacting to messages.

So adding reactivity to an object-oriented language is, at first blush, non-sensical and certainly causes confusion when explained this way. I was certainly confused, because until I found this one paper on reactive imperative programming, which adds constraints to C++ in a very cool and general way, none of the documentation, references or papers made the connection that seemed so blindingly obvious to me. I was starting to question my own sanity.


Additionally, one-way dataflow constraints creating relationships between program variables can, as far as I can tell, always be replaced by a formulation where the dependent variable is simply replaced by a method that computes the value on-demand. So instead of setting up a constraint between point1.x and point2.x, you implement point2.x as a method that uses point1.x to compute its value and never stores that value. Although this may evaluate more often than necessary rather than memoizing the value and computing just once, the additional cost of managing constraint evaluation is such that the two probably balance.

However, such an implementation creates permanent coupling and requires dedicated classes for each relationship. Constraints thus become more of an architectural feature, allowing existing, usually stateful components to be used together without having to adapt each component for each individual ensemble it is a part of.

Panta Rhei

Everything flows, so they say. As far as I can tell, two different communities, the F(R)P people and the OO people came up with very similar solutions based on data flow. The FP people wanted to become more reactive/interactive, and achieved this by modeling time as sequence numbers in streams of values, sort of like Lucid or other dataflow languages.

The OO people wanted to be able to specify relationships declaratively and have their system figure out the best way to satisfy those constraints, with a large and useful subset of those constraints falling into the category of the one-way dataflow constraints that, at least to my eye, are equivalent to FRP. In fact, this sort of state maintenance and update-propagation pops up in lots of different places, for example makefiles or other build systems, web-server generators, publication workflows etc. ("this OmniGraffle diagram embedded as a PDF into this LaTeX document that in turn becomes a PDF document" -> the final PDF should update automatically when I change the diagram, instead of me having to save the diagram, export it to PDF and then re-run LaTeX).

What's kind of funny is that these two groups seem to have converged in essentially the same space, but they seem to not be aware of each other, maybe they are phase-shifted with respect to each other? Part of that phase-shift is, again, communication. The FP guys couch everything in must destroy all humans er state rethoric, which doesn't do much to convince OO guys who know that for most of their programs, state isn't an implementation detail but fundamental to their applications. Also practical experience does not support the idea that the FP approach is obvious:

Unfortunately, given the considerable amount of time required to train students to use constraints in a non-graphical manner, it does not seem reasonable to expect that constraints will ever be widely used for purposes other than graphical layout. In retrospect this result should not have been surprising. Business people readily use constraints in spreadsheets because constraints match their mental model of the world. Similarly, we have found that students readily use constraints for graphical layout since constraints match their mental model of the world, both because they use constraints, such as left align or center, to align objects in drawing editors, and because they use constraints to specify the layout of objects in precision paper sketches, such as blueprints. However, in their everyday lives, students are much more accustomed to accomplishing tasks using an imperative set of actions rather than using a declarative set of actions.
Of course there are other groups hanging out in this convergence zone, for example the Unix folk with their pipes and filters. That is also not too surprising if you look at the history:
So, we were all ready. Because it was so easy to compose processes with shell scripts. We were already doing that. But, when you have to decorate or invent the name of intermediate files and every function has to say put your file there. And the next one say get your input from there. The clarity of composition of function, which you perceived in your mind when you wrote the program, is lost in the program. Whereas the piping symbol keeps it. It's the old thing about notations are important.
I think the familiarity with Unix pipes also increases the itch: why can't I have that sort of thing in my general purpose programming language? Especially when it can lead to very concise programs, such as the Quartz-like graphics subsystem Gezira written in under 400 lines of code using the Nile dataflow language.

Moving Forward

I too have heard the siren sing. I also think that a more spreadsheet-like programming model would not just make my life as a developer easier, it might also make software more approachable for end-user adaptation and tinkering, contributing to a more meaningful version of open source. But how do we get there? Apart from a reasonable implementation and better debuggingsupport, a new system would need much tighter language integration. Preferably there would be a direct syntax for expressing constraints such as that available in constraint imperative programming languages or constraint extensions to existing languages like Ruby or JavaScript. This language support should be unified as much as possible between different constraint systems, not one mechanism for Autolayout and a completely different one for Bindings.

Supporting constraint programming has always been one of the goals of my Objective-Smalltalk project, and so far that has informed the PolymorphicIdentifiers that support a uniform interface for data backed by different types of stores, including one or more constraint stores supporting cooperating solvers, filesystems or web-sites. More needs to be done, such as extending the data-flow connector hierarchy to conceptually integrate constraints. The idea is to create a language that does not actually include constraints in its core, but rather provides sufficient conceptual, expressive and implementation flexibility to allow users to add such a facility in a non-ad-hoc way so that it is fully integrated into the language once added. I am not there yet, but all the results so far are very promising. The architectural focus of Objective-Smalltalk also ties in well with the architectural interpretation of constraints.

There is a lot to do, but on the other hand I think the payback is huge, and there is also a large body of existing theoretical, practical and empirical groundwork to fall back on, so I think the task is doable. Your feedback, help and pull requests would be very much appreciated!

Discussion on Hacker News.

Update: I finally have some code and a brief article discussing it.

Wednesday, March 12, 2014

Looking at a scripting language...and imagining the consequences

After thinking about the id subset and being pointed to WebScript, Brent Simmons imagines a scripting language. I have to admit I have been imagining pretty much the same language...and at some time decided to stop imagining and start building Objective-Smalltalk:

  • Peer of Objective-C: objects are Objective-C objects, methods are Objective-C methods, added to the runtime and indistinguishable from the outside. "You can subclass UIViewController, or write a category on it."
    <void>alertView:alertView clickedButtonAtIndex:<int>buttonIndex
       self newGame.
       self view setNeedsDisplay.
    The example is from the site, it was copied from an actual program. As you can see, interoperability with the C parts of Objective-C is still necessary, but not bothersome.
  • It has blocks:
       thumbs := self thumbsView subviews.
       viewsToRemove := thumbs selectWhereValueForKey:'filename' isEqual:filename.
       aView := viewsToRemove firstObject.
       UIView animateWithDuration:0.4
              animations: [ aView setAlpha: 0.0. ]
              completion: [ aView removeFromSuperview. 
                            UIView animateWithDuration: 0.2
                                   animations: [ self thumbsView layoutSubviews. ]
                                   completion: [ 3  ]. 
       url := self urlForFile:aFilename.
       NSFileManager defaultManager removeItemAtURL:url  error:nil.
       (self thumbsView afterDelay:0.4) setNeedsLayout.
    This example was also copied from an actual small educational game that was ported over from Flash.

    You also get Higher Order Messaging, Polymorpic Identifiers etc.

  • Works with the toolchain: this is a a little more tricky, but I've made some progress...part of that is an llvm based native compiler, part is tooling that enables some level of integration with Xcode, part is a separate toolset that has comparable or better capabilities.

While Objective-Smalltalk would not require shipping source code with your applications, due to the native compiler, it would certainly allow it, and in fact my own BookLightning imposition program has been shipping with part of its Objective-Smalltalk source hidden its Resources folder for about a decade or so. Go ahead, download it, crack it open and have a look! I'll wait here while you do.

Did you have a look? The part that is in Smalltalk is the distilled (but very simple) imposition algorithm shown here.

		isBackPage := (( pageNo / 2 ) intValue ) isEqual: (pageNo / 2 ).

		pages:=self pageMap objectAtIndex:pageNo.
		page1:=pages integerAtIndex:0.
		page2:=pages integerAtIndex:1.

		self drawPage:page1 andPage:page2 flipped:(self shouldFlipPage:pageNo).

	drawPage:<int>page1 andPage:<int>page2 flipped:<int>flipped
		drawingStream := self drawingStream.
		base := MPWPSMatrix matrixRotate:-90.

		drawingStream saveGraphicsState.
		flipped ifTrue: [ drawingStream concat:self flipMatrix ].
		width := self inRect x.

		self drawPage:page1 transformedBy:(base matrixTranslatedBy: (width * -2) y:0). 
		self drawPage:page2 transformedBy:(base matrixTranslatedBy: (width * -1) y:0). 
		drawingStream restoreGraphicsState.
Page imposition code

What this means is that any user of BookLightning could adapt it to suit their needs, though I am pretty sure that none have done so to this date. This is partly due to the fact that this imposition algorithm is too limited to allow for much variation, and partly due to the fact that the feature is well hidden and completely unexpected.

There are two ideas behind this:

  1. Open Source should be more about being able to tinker with well-made apps in useful ways, rather than downloading and compiling gargantuan and incomprehensible tarballs of C/C++ code.
  2. There is no hard distinction between programming and scripting. A higher level scripting/programming language would not just make developer's jobs easier, it could also enable the sort of tinkering and adaptation that Open Source should be about.
I don't think the code samples shown above are quite at the level needed to really enable tinkering, but maybe they can be a useful contribution to the discussion.

Wednesday, March 5, 2014

Cargo-cult typing, or: Objective-C's default type is id

In discussing some feedback to a chapter of my upcoming book, I was surprised to get the following code flagged:
   if ( anIndex < [self count] ) {
	  return objects[anIndex];
   return nil;

The feedback was, effectively: "This code is incorrect, it is missing a return type". Of course, the code isn't incorrect in the least bit, the return type is id, because that is the default type, and in fact, you will see this style in both Brad Cox's book:

Objc orig
and the early NeXTStep documentation:
Nextstep doku
Having a default type for objects isn't entirely surprising, because at that time id was not just the default type, it was the only type available for objects, the optional static typing for objects wasn't introduced into Objective-C until later. In addition the template for Objective-C's object system was Smalltalk, which doesn't use static types, you just use variable names.

Cargo-cult typing

So while it is possible (and apparently common) to write -(id)objectAtIndex:(NSUInteger)anIndex, it certainly isn't any more correct. In fact, it's worse, because it is just syntactic noise [1][2], although it is arguably even worse than what Fowler describes because it isn't actually mandated by the language, the noise is inflicted needlessly.

And while we could debate as to whether it is better or not to write things that are redundant syntactic noise, we could also not, as that was settled almost 800 years ago: entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem. You could also say KISS or "when in doubt, leave it out", all of which just say the the burden of proof is on whoever wants to add the redundant pieces.

What's really odd about this phenomenon is that we really don't gain anything from typing out these explicit types, the code certainly doesn't become more readable. It's as if we think that by following the ritual of explicitly typing out a type, we made the proper sacrifice to the gods of type-safety and they will reward us with correctness. But just like those Pacific islanders that built wooden planes, radios and control towers, the ritual is empty, because it conveys no information to the type system, or the reader.

The id subset

Now, I personally don't really care whether you put in a redundant (id) or not, I certainly have been reading over it (and not even really noticing) for my last two decades of Objective-C coding. However, the mistaken belief that it has to be there, rather than this is a personal choice you make, does worry me.

I think the problem goes a little deeper than just slightly odd coding styles, because it seems to be part and parcel of a drive towards making Objective-C look like an explicitly statically typed language along the lines of C++ or maybe Java, with one of the types being id. That's not the case: Objective-C is an optionally statically typed language. This means that you may specify type information if you want to, but you generally don't have to. I also want the emphasize that you can at best get Objective-C to look like such a language, the holes in the type system are way too big for this to actually gain much safety.

Properties started this trend, and now the ARC variant of the language turns what used to be warnings about unknown selectors needlessly into hard compiler errors. Of course, there are some who plausibly argue that this always should have been an error, or actually, that it always was an error, we just didn't know about it.

That's hogwash, of course. There is a subset of the language, which I'd like to call the id subset, where all the arguments and returns are object pointers, and for this it was always safe to not have additional type information, to the point where the compiler didn't actually have that additional type information. You could also call it the Smalltalk subset.

Another thing that's odd about this move to rigidify Objective-C in the face of success of more dynamic languages is that we actually have been moving into the right direction at the language base-level (disregarding the type-system): in general programming style, with new syntax support for object literals and subscripting, SmallInteger style NSNumbers modern Objective-C consists much more of pure objects than was traditionally the case. And as long as we are dealing with pure objects, we are in the id subset.

A dynamic language

What's great about the id subset is that it makes incremental, explorative programming very easy and lots of fun, much like other dynamic languages such as Smalltalk, Python or Ruby. (Not entirely like them, due to the need to compile to native code, but compilers are fast these days and there are possible fixes such as Objective-Smalltalk.)

The newly enforced rigidity is starting to make explorative programming in Objective-C much harder, and a lot less fun. In fact, it feels much more like C++ or Java and much less like the dynamic language that it is, and in my opinion is the wrong direction: we should be making our language more dynamic, and of course that's what I've been doing. So while I wouldn't agree with that tradeoff even if it were true, the fact is that we aren't actually getting static type safety, we are just getting a wood prop that will not fly.

Discussion on Hacker News.

UPDATE: Inserted a little clarification that I don't care about bike-shedding your code with regard to (id). The problem is that people's mistaken belief both that and why it has to be there is symptomatic of that deeper trend I wrote about.

Wednesday, January 8, 2014

codesign lies

Just had a case of codesign telling me my app was fine, just for the same app to be rejected by GateKeeper. The spctl tool fortunately was more truthful, but didn't really say where the problem was.

A little sleuthing determined that although I had signed all my frameworks with the Developer ID, two auxiliary executables were signed with my development certificate.

Lesson learned: don't trust codesign, use spctl to verify your binaries.

Thursday, January 2, 2014

Objective-C: TIOBE programming language of the year third time in a row!

Actually: no it isn't, Transact-SQL got the honors. Apart from the obvious question, "Transact-Who?", it really should have been Objetive-C, because Tiobe readjusted the index mid-year in a way that resulted in a drop of 0.5% for the popular languages, which is fine, but without readjusting the historical data! Which is...not...especially if you make judgements based on relative performance.

In this case, Transact-SQL beat Objective-C by 0.17%, far less than the roughly 0.5% drop suffered by Objective-C mid-year. So Objective-C would have easily done the hat-trick, but I guess Tiobe didn't want that and rigged the game to make sure it doesn't happen.

Not that it matters...

UPDATE: I contacted Tiobe and they confirmed, both the lack of rebaselining and that Objective-C would likely have won an unprecedented third time in a row.