However, their implementation has specific objects reacting asynchronously to messages, making it more similar to the actor model,which as they mention is also very much Alan Kay's original conceptual model for Smalltalk:
Bob Barton, the main designer of the B5000 and a professor at Utah had said in one of his talks a few days earlier: "The basic principle of recursive design is to make the parts have the same power as the whole." For the first time I thought of the whole as the entire computer and wondered why anyone would want to divide it up into weaker things called data structures and procedures. Why not divide it up into little computers, as time sharing was starting to? But not in dozens. Why not thousands of them, each simulating a useful structure? [Emphasis mine]Actors are inherently asynchronous, each actor runs in a separate process/thread and messages arealso asynchronous, with the sender not waiting for the message to be delivered or ever gettinga return value. Of course the actor model also makes all objects active, so the Etoile model, whichonly makes objects of specific classes active, is somewhere inbetween.
Futures, on the other hand, as introduced in MULTLSIP (pdf), tryto integrate asynchronous execution into a traditional call/return control- and data-flow. So messages(or functions in MULTILSIP) appear to have normal synchronous semantics and immediately yielda return value, but when annotated with the future keyword execution of that return valueis done in a background thread and the immediate return value is just a proxy for the value that is still being computed.
In the HOM paper (pdf) presented at OOPSLA 2005, I also describe a Future implementationbased on Higher Order Messaging that comes very close to the way it was done in MULTILSIP. A -futureHOM is all that is needed to indicate that you would like a result computed in a background thread:
result = [anObject lengthyOperation:parameter]; // synchronous result = [[anObject future] lengthyOperation:parameter]; // asynchronous with futureI am probably biased, but this seems about as easy-to-use as possible,with all the nasty machinery (worker-queues, lockless FIFOs, etc.)hidden behind a single -future message.